Coventry is a metropolitan borough in the England. It is also a second largest city in the West Midlands, England. As per the geographical part, it is the 12th largest city in the United Kingdom. According to 2015 population counting, it stands nearly 345,385. The city is located 11 miles north of Warwick, 24 miles southwest of Leicester and 19 miles east-southeast of Birmingham. It is acknowledged among historic counties of England and lies 95 miles northwest of central London. In 1940, the 14th-century cathedral church was demolished by the German Wehrmacht military forces in 1940, and Coventry Cathedral was built in the city. The Automobiles Company of the town played a vital role in the growth of the British motor industry. The two major universities such as the University of Warwick and Coventry University situated on the southern outskirts and city center respectively.
The Romans founded the civil parish in the Warwick district known as Baginton, and a Saxon nunnery was established by St Osburga in AD 700. Later on, King Canute attacked the Danish Army, and the Anglo-Saxon abbey was left in ruins in the 10th century. The Leofric of Mercia established the Benedictine monastery in 1043, and the settlement grew with the establishment of the market at the abbey gates. The 4th captain of Chester Ranulf de Gernon established a Coventry Castle in the early 12th century, known as bailey castle in the city. The first usage of the palace they came to light after the Robert Marmion discharged the monks from the adjacent priory of Saint Mary. Later on, the castle was converted into a fortress and waged a battle site against the Earl.
The city acknowledged as the most important city in England and served as a major center of the cloth trade during the 14th century. The town also became one of the three major centers of the clock and watched manufacturing in 18th and 19th century. The clock industry declined due to competition from Swiss clock manufacturers, and the focus shifted to bicycle and motorbike manufacture along with machine tool and aircraft industries. The city flourished as a leading centre of bicycle manufacturing in the late 19th century. Later on, the bicycle manufacturing was expanded to production of motors, and the town became the principal centre of the British motor industry. The Jaguar’s design headquarters are established at the Whitley plant.
The city was the prime target of German bombers during the Second World War and suffered massive air raids occurred on the evening of 14 November 1940 destroyed more than 4000 houses. The Germans named it operation moonlight sonata. The severe bombing raids killed more than 800 people and damaged three-quarters of the industrial plants of the city. During the Luftwaffe attacks, the town suffered colossal damage in comparison with other cities of the England. The immense firestorms damaged most of the city center due to the presence of massive armaments, aircraft and aero-engine plants.
The city is served by two central universities such as Coventry University and the University of Warwick. For further education, the city has three colleges such as City College, Hereward College and Henley College. The secondary schools in the town are specialist ones which are Finham Park School, Cardinal Wiseman Catholic School and Language College, Woodlands School and Caludon Castle School. The two oldest secondary schools in the city are Sidney Stringer Academy and President Kennedy School and Community College.
The city acknowledged as the most significant seat of ribbon-making in the UK and competed globally with France and locally with towns of Leicester and Norwich. The city is home to various cycle and motor manufacturing companies including The Great Horseless Carriage Company, Triumph motorcycle, Coventry Motette and Swift Motor Company. The major sectors such as agricultural machinery, telecommunications equipment, machine tools and aerospace components contributed towards the growth of the economy. Nowadays, the focus moved towards the finance, research and development as well as logistics and entertainment.